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Mudworks: Creative Clay, Dough, and Modeling Experiences (Bright Ideas for Learning)

Mudworks: Creative Clay, Dough, and Modeling Experiences (Bright Ideas for Learning)

by MaryAnn F. Kohl

ISBN: 9780935607024

Publisher Chicago Review Press

Published in Children's Books/Arts & Music

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Sample Chapter


CHAPTER 1

PLAYDOUGH


The 37 recipes in this chapter are meant to be explored and enjoyed without definite outcomes. Each dough or clay has textures, smells, and modeling qualities unique to itself that require no planned results. Children explore and create freely. Many of the recipes give suggestions for variations to expand the enjoyment of the recipe after the child has had a chance to explore. Feel free to experiment and mix ideas from one page to another.


SALTY FUNDOUGH

nice consistency — good for young children


MATERIALS:

1 cup flour
1 cup water
½ cup salt
2 t. cream of tartar
2 T. oil
pan


PROCESS:

1. mix all ingredients in pan

2. cook until thickened over low heat

3. cool

4. knead

5. explore dough freely


SALT PLAYDOUGH

excellent cooked dough


MATERIALS:

1 cup water
½ cup flour
1 cup salt
saucepan
wax paper, rolling pin
food coloring, optional
airtight container


PROCESS:

1. mix all ingredients in saucepan

2. add food coloring if desired

3. stir over low heat

4. when thick and rubbery, remove from heat

5. spoon part of clay onto a floured sheet of wax paper

6. roll out

7. cut out or model objects

8. dry objects for a few days

9. store covered dough in airtight container to prevent drying


VARIATIONS:

1. use straws to punch holes for hanging

2. glue sequins to clay

3. paint

4. make beads and string on yarn

5. make a clay bowl by rolling clay into coils

6. press macaroni into sides before clay hardens


PLAY CLAY

pure white — hardens quickly


MATERIALS:

1 cup baking soda
½ cup cornstarch
2/3 cup warm water
food coloring or poster paints
shellac or clear nail polish
saucepan
board


PROCESS:

1. mix baking soda and cornstarch in saucepan

2. add water and stir until smooth

3. over medium heat, boil and stir until like mashed potatoes

4. pour onto board to cool

5. knead when cool

6. for color, knead coloring into clay until blended or paint when finished

7. when dry, brush with shellac or nail polish


HINTS:

1. makes 1½ cups, doubles well

2. hardens quickly

3. stores in airtight container for several weeks


CORNSTARCH DOUGH

slightly grainy and white — keeps well


MATERIALS:

½ cup salt
½ cup hot water
¼ cup cold water
½ cup cornstarch
pan
bowl
board


PROCESS:

1. mix salt and hot water and boil in pan

2. stir cold water into cornstarch in bowl

3. add cornstarch mixture to boiling water and stir

4. cook over low, stirring until like pie dough

5. remove and turn onto a board

6. when cool, knead until smooth

7. explore dough freely


HINTS:

1. texture is grainy

2. hardens in 1 to 2 days

3. is white

4. speed drying time in oven 200° for 1 hour

5. keeps a long time if stored in container


FUNCLAY 1

smooth, white dough — good for making animals


MATERIALS:

water colors, tempera paints, wax paper
1 cup salt
½ cup cornstarch
1 cup boiling water
pan
wet cloth


PROCESS:

1. mix all ingredients in a pan

2. boil to a soft ball stage

3. knead on wax paper until dough-like

4. wrap in wet cloth to keep for a few days

5. by holding a lump of clay in hands, pull out the clay to make legs arms and head and tail

6. let animals dry and then paint


VARIATIONS:

1. make free-form designs

2. make ornaments for holidays or birthdays


FUNCLAY 2

dries in several hours — good for younger children


MATERIALS:

1 cup cornstarch
2 cups salt
1 1/3 cups cold water
paint
pan
bowl
spoon
plastic bag


PROCESS:

1. put salt and 2/3 cup water in a pan and boil

2. mix cornstarch with remaining water in bowl and stir well

3. add salt mixture to cornstarch mixture in bowl

4. knead

5. model or mold clay and let dry several hours

6. paint when dry, if desired


HINTS:

1. makes 3 cups

2. keep unused clay in a covered container, or plastic bag in refrigerator


SALTY OIL DOUGH 1

children enjoy kneading warm dough


MATERIALS:

½ cup flour
2 T. salt
1 t. cream of tartar (optional)
1/3 cup water
1 t. cooking oil
medium bowl
saucepan
spoon
jar with lid, or plastic wrap


PROCESS:

1. measure the flour and salt into a bowl

2. add optional cream of tartar as a preservative

3. boil water in saucepan and pour into flour mixture

4. add oil

5. stir until mixed (dough will be sticky)

6. roll and squeeze warm dough in hands for 5 minutes (the longer it is handled, the nicer it gets)

7. model and explore as with any clay

8. store in airtight container or plastic wrap


SALTY OIL DOUGH 2

very workable


MATERIALS:

1 cup flour
1 T. vegetable oil
1 cup water
½ cup salt
2 t. cream of tartar
food coloring
saucepan
covered container
spoon


PROCESS:

1. heat all ingredients over low heat in saucepan, stirring until ball forms

2. knead

3. explore dough freely

4. store in covered container or plastic bag


SAND MODELING

molds or models beautifully — stonelike when dry


MATERIALS:

1 cup sand
½ cup cornstarch
1 t. alum
¾ cup hot water
food coloring (optional)
bowl
pan
airtight container


PROCESS:

1. mix sand, cornstarch, and alum in bowl

2. add hot water, stirring vigorously

3. add food coloring if desired

4. cook over medium heat until thick in pan

5. cool

6. model or mold into objects

7. dry in sunshine for several days

8. store left over dough in airtight container


HINTS:

1. makes 2 cups

2. grainy and stonelike

3. does not need shellac or varnish for protection


SALT OIL ALUM DOUGH

easily accepts experimental ingredients such as sand, coffee, or glitter


MATERIALS:

2 cups water
½ cup salt
food coloring
2 T. salad oil
2 T. alum
2 cups flour
pan
spoon


PROCESS:

1. boil water, salt, and food coloring in pan

2. remove from heat

3. add oil, alum and flour

4. while hot, mix and knead 5 minutes

5. explore and model dough freely


VARIATIONS:

1. try adding a fragrance

2. try kneading in a texture such as coffee grounds, sawdust, vermiculite, or other grainy items


SUGAR DOUGH

sticky and fun


MATERIALS:

1 cup sugar
1 cup flour
1 cup cold water
5 cups boiling water
pan
spoon


PROCESS:

1. mix sugar, flour, and cold water in pan

2. add boiling water and cook 5 minutes, stirring

3. cool

4. model and explore dough freely


HINTS:

1. does not keep well

2. sticky and fun


LINT MODELING

unusual ingredients molds well — a little like papier-mache


MATERIALS:

3 cups dryer lint
2 cups cold or warm water
2/3 cup flour
3 drops oil of cloves
old newspapers
saucepan
box, bottle, balloon, or mold


PROCESS:

1. stir lint and water in a saucepan

2. add flour and stir to prevent lumps

3. add oil of cloves

4. cook over low and stir until mixture forms peaks

5. pour out and cool on newspapers

6. shape over boxes, bottles, balloons or press into a mold, or use like papier-mache (see Chapter 4)


HINTS:

1. makes 4 cups

2. dries in 3 to 5 days

3. very hard, durable

4. dries smooth if pressed into a mold

5. dries rougher if shaped over an object


BASIC ART DOUGH

the best and easiest uncooked dough


MATERIALS:

4 cups flour
1 cup iodized salt
1¾ cups warm water
bowl


PROCESS:

1. mix all ingredients in bowl

2. knead 10 minutes

3. model as with any clay

4. bake 300° until hard

5. or air dry for a few days


BAKERS CLAY

versatile, soft, pliable — similar to Basic Art Dough


MATERIALS:

4 cups flour
1 cup salt
1½ cups water
bowl, spoon
plastic bag


PROCESS:

1. mix salt in warm water until partially dissolved, then add to flour, or, mix flour and salt, then add water

2. mix with a spoon until the particles stick together, then

3. form a ball with your hands and knead 5 to 10 minutes

4. explore dough freely


HINTS:

1. if a rolled coil splits, dough needs more kneading until coil holds together

2. if dough does not knead properly, add a few drops of water at a time and work until dough is satiny smooth

3. if dough is too moist, add flour (dough will be stiff)

4. keep ball of dough in a plastic bag or covered bowl and take out only what you need (use within 24 hours)


VARIATIONS:

1. bake at 300° on cookie sheet for about 1 hour

2. let cool and paint, if desired

3. spray with clear varnish or fixative (finished pieces may be glued together)

4. can be baked at 250° 1 to 3 hours

5. half, double, or triple this recipe hint: measure carefully

6. glaze with egg white, evaporated milk, or mayonnaise before baking

7. color before shaping by mixing color with water


OILY DOUGH 1

easy, models well, keeps well


MATERIALS:

3 cups flour
1 cup salt
3 T. oil
1 cup water
bowl


PROCESS:

1. mix flour and salt in bowl

2. stir in oil and water

3. add more water if necessary to form soft dough

4. explore dough freely


OILY DOUGH 2

good for young children — very pliable


MATERIALS:

3 cups flour
1 cup salt
1 T. oil
1 cup water with food coloring
bowl


PROCESS:

1. mix dry ingredients in bowl

2. add water and oil gradually

3. add more water if too stiff

4. add more flour if too sticky

5. model as with any dough


SALT MODELING CLAY

doubles well for large group projects


MATERIALS:

1 cup flour
½ cup salt
1 t. alum
1/3 to ½ cup water
food coloring (optional)
bowl
airtight container


PROCESS:

1. combine flour, salt, and alum in bowl

2. add water a little at a time, and stir into flour hint: like pie-dough

3. knead until smooth

4. model as with any clay

5. let dry 2 to 3 days or, bake 1 to 2 hours at 200°


HINTS:

1. will store in airtight container for a long time

2. food coloring can be added or kneaded into moist clay

3. different coloring can be added to divided portions

4. doubles well for large groups or projects


VARIATIONS:

1. roll out and cut this clay

2. press designs into clay


QUICK MODELING

quick and easy — makes a bright colored clay


MATERIALS:

1 cup cold water
1 cup salt
2 t. oil
3 cups flour
2 T. cornstarch
powdered paint or food coloring


PROCESS:

1. mix the water, salt, oil and enough powdered paint to make a bright color

2. gradually work flour and cornstarch in until like bread dough

3. knead

4. model as with any clay


OIL ALUM CLAY

makes one cup — doubles well


MATERIALS:

¾ cup flour
½ cup salt
1½ t. alum
1½ t vegetable oil
½ cup boiling water
food coloring
pan
bowl
spoon
airtight container


PROCESS:

1. combine flour, salt, and alum in bowl

2. boil water in pan, add oil, and add to mixture in bowl

3. stir with spoon

4. add food coloring and knead until blended

5. explore dough freely


HINTS:

1. makes 1 cup, so you may want to mix several doubles

2. dries hard overnight

3. store in jar with tight lid

4. will keep several months without refrigeration


VARIATIONS:

1. make several batches of different colors

2. try adding scents


SALT AND ALUM MODELING

dries to extreme hardness and paints well


MATERIALS:

1 cup flour
1 cup salt
1 rounded t. powdered alum
water
bowl
paint, optional


PROCESS:

1. add water slowly to first three ingredients in bowl

2. knead until clay-like

3. model as with any clay

4. dry to extreme hardness

5. paint, if desired


EASY SALT DOUGH

resembles Baker's Clay


MATERIALS:

1½ cups flour
¾ cup salt
¾ cup water bowl


PROCESS:

1. mix all ingredients in bowl

2. add more water if needed

3. knead into soft dough

4. model as with any dough


OILY CLOUD DOUGH

very oily, unique tactile experience


MATERIALS:

1 cup oil
6 cups flour
food coloring
bowl
spoon


PROCESS:

1. mix oil, flour, and food coloring in bowl with spoon

2. knead

3. add more flour if needed

4. explore and use dough freely


HINTS:

1. dough is very oily

2. wear apron and wash hands with soap and water after using


COFFEE DOUGH

delicate golden color


MATERIALS:

2 cups flour
1 cup salt
¼ cup instant coffee
¾ to 1 cup warm water
varnish
cup
bowl
bread board
plastic wrap
foil-lined cookie sheet

PROCESS:

1. mix flour and salt together in bowl

2. make a well in the center

3. add coffee to water in cup and stir

4. pour coffee-water into flour-salt well, stirring

5. form a ball

note: add more flour or water if necessary

5. knead until smooth on lightly floured board, about 5 minutes

6. wrap in plastic and refrigerate until ready to use

7. model as with any clay

8. bake 325° for I½ hours, until hard, on foil-lined cookie sheet

9. varnish cooled project to seal


HINTS:

1. dough is delicate golden color

2. work on foil-lined cookie sheets

3. roll dough ½? thick for success

4. enough dough for one 8-inch flat project or several small projects


CINNAMON DOUGH

smells nice, but inedible


MATERIALS:

2 cups flour
1 cup salt
5 t. cinnamon
¾ to 1 cup warm water
bowl
cookie sheets
bread board
plastic wrap


PROCESS:

1. mix flour, salt, and cinnamon in bowl

2. make a well in center

3. pour in water

4. mix with hands until dough forms a ball

hint: more flour or water may be added so dough is neither crumbly nor sticky

5. knead on lightly floured board until smooth and satiny, about 5 minutes

6. wrap in plastic and refrigerate 20 minutes before using

7. use as any clay

note: excellent for cookie cutter ornaments rolled ¾? thick

8. bake 350° 1 hour, until hard


VARIATIONS:

1. sandpaper and varnish when cool

2. when working, pieces may be added by dipping them in water or brushing piece with water and pressing on work

3. work on a cookie sheet for easy clean-up

4. other ideas —

use garlic press for hair thread ribbon through to hang trace patterns and cut make candy cane shapes, peppermint balls, or chocolate kisses use dough candies to decorate wreaths


SOAPY DOUGH

soap gives dough a nice fragrance


MATERIALS:

2 cups flour
½ cup salt
2 T. liquid tempera paint
1 T. liquid soap
water
bowl


PROCESS:

1. mix all ingredients except water in bowl

2. add water to make a workable dough

3. model as with any dough


CORNMEAL DOUGH

forms smooth dough — keeps well


MATERIALS:

1½ cups flour
1½ cups cornmeal
1 cup salt
1 cup water
bowl


PROCESS:

1. mix all ingredients in bowl

2. add more water to form smooth dough

3. model as with any dough

hint: keeps up to six weeks in airtight container


OATMEAL DOUGH

a sticky but unique dough — inedible

MATERIALS:

1 cup flour or ... 1 part flour
2 cups oatmeal 2 parts oatmeal
1 cup water bowl 1 part water


PROCESS:

1. gradually add water to flour and oatmeal in bowl

2. knead until mixed

hint: this dough is sticky, but unique in texture

3. model as with any clay


VARIATIONS:

1. add cornmeal in small quantity for texture

2. add coffee grounds in small quantity for texture


COTTON DOUGH

cotton puffs up and holds shape


MATERIALS:

1 cup flour
¾ to 1 cup water
1 bag small cotton balls
bowl
cookie sheet


PROCESS:

1. mix flour and water in bowl until smooth paste

2. coat cotton balls in paste

hint: they tend to puff up and stay if handled gently

3. allow excess mixture to fall off each ball

4. form balls into desired shapes

5. place on cookie sheet

6. bake 325° for 1 hour, until lightly browned and hard

(Continues…)
Excerpted from "Mudworks: Creative Clay, Dough, and Modeling Experiences (Bright Ideas for Learning)" by MaryAnn F. Kohl. Copyright © 2013 by MaryAnn F. Kohl. Excerpted by permission. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher. Excerpts are provided solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
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